Agisoft PhotoScan User Manual. Professional Edition, Version PDF Free Download – Agisoft Metashape 1.6.6

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Она проехала по Кэнин-роуд еще сотню метров и въехала на стоянку С, предназначенную для сотрудников. Невероятно, – подумала она, – двадцать шесть тысяч служащих, двадцатимиллиардный бюджет – и они не могут обойтись без меня в уик-энд. Она поставила машину на зарезервированное за ней место и выключила двигатель. Миновав похожую на сад террасу и войдя в главное здание, она прошла проверку еще на двух внутренних контрольных пунктах и наконец оказалась в туннеле без окон, который вел в новое крыло.



Agisoft photoscan user manual professional edition version 1.4 free download

aerial images, a DJI Phantom 4 Pro unmanned aerial vehicle was used, equipped with AGISOFT PHOTOSCAN – User Manual, Professional Edition, Version Agisoft LLC. Agisoft PhotoScan User Manual Professional Edition, Version Available online: EARLY PHOTOGRAMMETRY IN ARCHITECTURAL DOCUMENTATION. “Agisoft PhotoScan User Manual Professional Edition, Version ” Accessed from.



If the export file of a fixed size is needed, it is possible to set the length of the longer side of the export file in Max. The length should be indicated in pixels.

Split in blocks option in the Export Orthomosaic dialog can be useful for exporting large projects. You can indicate the size of the blocks in pix for the orthomosaic to be divided into. The whole area will be split in equal blocks starting from the point with minimum x and y values. To export a particular part of the project use Region section of the Export Orthomosaic dialog. Indicate coordinates of the bottom left and top right corners of the region to be exported in the left and right columns Alternatively, you can indicate the region to be exported using polygon drawing option in the Ortho view tab of the program window.

For instructions on polygon drawing refer to Shapes section of the manual. Once the polygon is drawn, right-click on the polygon and set it as a boundary of the region to be exported using Set Boundary Type option from the context menu. Default value for pixel size in Export Orthomosaic dialog refers to ground sampling resolution, thus, it is useless to set a smaller value: the number of pixels would increase, but the effective resolution would not.

If you have chosen to export orthomosaic with a certain pixel size not using Max. Additionally, the file may be saved without compression None value of the compression type parameter. Total size textbox in the Export Orthomosaic dialog helps to estimate the size of the resulting file.

However, it is recommended to make sure that the application you are planning to open the orthomosaic with supports BigTIFF format. Alternatively, you can split a large orthomosaic in blocks, with each block fitting the limits of a standard TIFF file.

Google Map Tiles. World Wind Tiles. PhotoScan supports direct uploading of the orthomosaics to MapBox platform. To publish your orthomosaic online use Upload Orthomosaic Note MapBox upload requires secure token with uploads:write scope that should be obtained on the account page of the MapBox web-site.

Secure token shouldn’t be mixed up with the public token, as the latter doesn’t allow to upload orthomosaics from PhotoScan. Multispectral orthomosaic has all channels of the original imagery plus alpha channel, transparency being used for no-data areas of the orthomosaic. Follow steps from Orthomosaic export procedure above. Vegetation index data can be saved as two types of data: as a grid of floating point index values calculated per pixel of orthomosaic or as an orthomosaic in pseudocolors according to a pallet set by user.

None value allows to export orthomosaic generated for the data before any index calculation procedure was performed. To export DEM 1. Select Export DEM World file specifies coordinates of the four angle vertices of the exporting DEM. This information is already included in GeoTIFF elevation data as well as in other supported file formats for DEM export, however, you could duplicate it for some reason.

If export file of a fixed size is needed, it is possible to to set the length of the longer side of the export file in Max. Unlike orthophoto export, it is sensible to set smaller pixel size compared to the default value in DEM export dialog; the effective resolution will increase. If you have chosen to export DEM with a certain pixel No-data value is used for the points of the grid, where elevation value could not be calculated based on the source data.

Default value is suggested according to the industry standard, however it can be changed by user. See Orthomosaic export section for details.

Similarly to orthomosaic export, polygons drawn over the DEM on the Ortho tab of the program window can be set as boundaries for DEM export. Depth map for any image Export Depth Orthophotos for individual images Export Orthophotos PhotoScan supports direct uploading of the models to Sketchfab resource and of the orthomosaics to MapBox platform.

Processing report generation PhotoScan supports automatic processing report generation in PDF format, which contains the basic parameters of the project, processing results and accuracy evaluations. To generate processing report 1. Select Generate Report Survey data including coverage area, flying altitude, GSR, general camera s info, as well as overlap statistics.

Camera calibration results: figures and an illustration for every sensor involved in the project. Camera positioning error estimates. Ground control points error estimates. Scale bars estimated distances and measurement errors. Digital elevation model sketch with resolution and point density info. Processing parameters used at every stage of the project. Note Processing report can be exported after alignment step. Processing report export option is available for georeferenced projects only.

Number of images – total number of images uploaded into the project. Camera stations – number of aligned images. Flying altitude – average height above ground level. Tie points – total number of valid tie points equals to the number of points in the sparse cloud.

Ground resolution – effective ground resolution averaged over all aligned images. Projections – total number of projections of valid tie points. Coverage area – size of the area that has been surveyed. Reprojection error – root mean square reprojection error averaged over all tie points on all images.

Reprojection error is the distance between the point on the image where a reconstructed 3D point can be projected and the original projection of that 3D point detected on the photo and used as a basis for the 3D point reconstruction procedure. Camera Calibration For precalibrated cameras internal parameters input by the user are shown on the report page. If a camera was not precalibrated, internal camera parameters estimated by PhotoScan are presented.

Camera Locations X error m – root mean square error for X coordinate for all the cameras. Y error m – root mean square error for Y coordinate for all the cameras.

Z error m – root mean square error for Z coordinate for all the cameras. Total error m – root mean square error for X, Y, Z coordinates for all the cameras. Distance m – scale bar length estimated by PhotoScan. Error m – difference between input and estimated values for scale bar length. The value depends on the Quality parameter value used at Build point cloud step, providing that DEM has been generated from dense point cloud.

Point Density – average number of dense cloud points per square meter. Processing Parameters Processing report contains processing parameters information, which is also available form Chunk context menu. Along with the values of the parameters used at various processing stages, this page of the report presents information on processing time.

Processing time attributed to Dense point cloud processing step will exclude time spent on depth maps reconstruction, unless Keep depth maps option is checked on For projects calculated over network processing time will not be shown. PhotoScan matches images on different scales to improve robustness with blurred or difficult to match images. The accuracy of tie point projections depends on the scale at which they were located.

PhotoScan uses information about scale to weight tie point reprojection errors. In the Reference pane settings dialog tie point accuracy parameter now corresponds to normalized accuracy – i. Tie points detected on other scales will have accuracy proportional to their scales. This helps to obtain more accurate bundle adjustment results. On the processing parameters page of the report as well as in chunk information dialog two reprojection errors are provided: the reprojection error in the units of tie point scale this is the quantity that is minimized during bundle adjustment , and the reprojection error in pixels for convenience.

The mean key point size value is a mean tie point scale averaged across all projections. Referencing Camera calibration Calibration groups While carrying out photo alignment PhotoScan estimates both internal and external camera orientation parameters, including nonlinear radial distortions.

For the estimation to be successful it is crucial to apply the estimation procedure separately to photos taken with different cameras. All the actions described below could and should be applied or not applied to each calibration group individually.

Calibration groups can be rearranged manually. To create a new calibration group 1. Select Camera Calibration In the Camera Calibration dialog box, select photos to be arranged in a new group. In the right-click context menu choose Create Group command. A new group will be created and depicted on the left-hand part of the Camera Calibration dialog box. To move photos from one group to another 1. In the Camera Calibration dialog box choose the source group on the left-hand part of the dialog.

Select photos to be moved and drag them to the target group on the left-hand part of the Camera Calibration dialog box. To place each photo into a separate group you can use Split Groups command available at the right button click on a calibration group name in the left-hand part of the Camera Calibration dialog Camera types PhotoScan supports four major types of camera: frame camera, fisheye camera, spherical camera and cylindrical camera. Camera type can be set in Camera Calibration dialog box available from Tools menu.

Frame camera. If the source data within a calibration group was shot with a frame camera, for successful estimation of camera orientation parameters the information on approximate focal length pix is required. Obviously, to calculate focal length value in pixel it is enough to know focal length in mm along with the sensor pixel size in mm. Normally this data is extracted automatically from the EXIF metadata.

Frame camera with Fisheye lens. If extra wide lenses were used to get the source data, standard PhotoScan camera model will not allow to estimate camera parameters successfully. Fisheye camera type setting will initialize implementation of a different camera model to fit ultra-wide lens distortions.

Spherical camera equirectangular projection. In case the source data within a calibration group was shot with a spherical camera, camera type setting will be enough for the program to calculate No additional information is required except the image in equirectangular representation.

Spherical camera Cylindrical projection. In case the source data within a calibration group is a set of panoramic images stitched according to cylindrical model, camera type setting will be enough for the program to calculate camera orientation parameters. No additional information is required.

In case source images lack EXIF data or the EXIF data is insufficient to calculate focal length in pixels, PhotoScan will assume that focal length equals to 50 mm 35 mm film equivalent. However, if the initial guess values differ significantly from the actual focal length, it is likely to lead to failure of the alignment process.

So, if photos do not contain EXIF metadata, it is preferable to specify focal length mm and sensor pixel size mm manually. It can be done in Camera Calibration dialog box available from Tools menu.

Generally, this data is indicated in camera specification or can be received from some online source. To indicate to the program that camera orientation parameters should be estimated based on the focal length and pixel size information, it is necessary to set the Type parameter on the Initial tab to Auto value.

Camera calibration parameters Once you have tried to run the estimation procedure and got poor results, you can improve them thanks to the additional data on calibration parameters.

To specify camera calibration parameters 1. Select calibration group, which needs reestimation of camera orientation parameters on the left side of the Camera Calibration dialog box.

In the Camera Calibration dialog box, select Initial tab. Modify the calibration parameters displayed in the corresponding edit boxes. Set the Type to the Precalibrated value. Repeat to every calibration group where applicable. Click OK button to set the calibration. Note Alternatively, initial calibration data can be imported from file using Load button on the Initial tab of the Camera Calibration dialog box.

Initial calibration data will be adjusted during the Align Photos processing step. Once Align Photos processing step is finished adjusted calibration data will be displayed on the Adjusted tab of the Camera Calibration dialog box. If very precise calibration data is available, to protect it from recalculation one should check Fix calibration box.

In this case initial calibration data will not be changed during Align Photos process. Adjusted camera calibration data can be saved to file using Save button on the Adjusted tab of the Camera Calibration dialog box. Estimated camera distortions can be seen on the distortion plot available from context menu of a camera group in the Camera Calibration dialog.

In addition, residuals graph the second tab of the same Distortion Plot dialog allows to evaluate how adequately the camera is described with the applied mathematical Note that residuals are averaged per cell of an image and then across all the images in a camera group. Calibration parameters list fx, fy Focal length in x- and y-dimensions measured in pixels.

Setting coordinate system Many applications require data with a defined coordinate system. Setting the coordinate system also provides a correct scaling of the model allowing for surface area and volume measurements and makes model loading in geoviewers and geoinformation software much easier.

Some functionality like digital elevation model export is available only after the coordinate system is defined. PhotoScan supports setting a coordinate system based on either ground control point marker coordinates or camera coordinates. In both cases the coordinates are specified in the Reference pane and can be either loaded from the external file or typed in manually. Setting coordinate system based on recorded camera positions is often used in aerial photography processing.

However it may be also useful for processing photos captured with GPS enabled cameras. Placing markers is not required if recorded camera coordinates are used to initialize the coordinate system. In the case when ground control points are used to set up the coordinate system the markers should be placed in the corresponding locations of the scene.

Using camera positioning data for georeferencing the model is faster since manual marker placement is not required. On the other hand, ground control point coordinates are usually more accurate than telemetry data, allowing for more precise georeferencing. Placing markers PhotoScan uses markers to specify locations within the scene. Markers are used for setting up a coordinate system, photo alignment optimization, measuring distances and volumes within the scene as well as for marker based chunk alignment.

Marker positions are defined by their projections on the source photos. The more photos are used to specify marker position the higher is accuracy of marker placement. To define marker location within a scene it should be placed on at least 2 photos. Note Marker placement is not required for setting the coordinate system based on recorded camera coordinates.

This section can be safely skipped if the coordinate system is to be defined based on recorded camera locations. Manual approach implies that the marker projections should be indicated manually on each photo where the marker is visible.

Manual marker placement does not require 3D model and can be performed even before photo alignment. In the guided approach marker projection is specified for a single photo only. PhotoScan automatically projects the corresponding ray onto the model surface and calculates marker projections on the rest of the photos where marker is visible.

Marker projections defined automatically on individual photos can be further refined manually. Reconstructed 3D model surface is required for the guided approach.

Guided marker placement usually speeds up the procedure of marker placement significantly and also reduces the chance of incorrect marker placement. It is recommended in most cases unless there are any specific reasons preventing this operation. To place a marker using guided approach 1. Open a photo where the marker is visible by double clicking on its name. Switch to the marker editing mode using Edit Markers toolbar button. Right click on the photo at the point corresponding to the marker location.

Select Create Marker command from the context menu. New marker will be created and its projections on the other photos will be automatically defined. Note If the 3D model is not available or the ray at the selected point does not intersect with the model surface, the marker projection will be defined on the current photo only.

Guided marker placement can be performed in the same way from the 3D view by right clicking on the corresponding point on the model surface and using Create Marker command from the context menu. While the accuracy of marker placement in the 3D view is usually much lower, it may be still useful for quickly locating the photos observing the specified location on the model. To view the corresponding photos use Filter by Markers command again from the 3D view context menu.

If the command is inactive, please make sure that the marker in question is selected on the Reference pane. To place a marker using manual approach 1. Create marker instance using Add marker button on the Workspace pane or by Add Marker command from the Chunk context menu available by right clicking on the chunk title on the Workspace pane.

Open the photo where the marker projection needs to be added by double clicking on the photos name. Right click at the point on the photo where the marker projection needs to be placed. From the context menu open Place Marker submenu and select the marker instance previously created. The marker projection will be added to the current photo. Repeat the previous step to place marker projections on other photos if needed. When a marker is placed on an aligned photo, PhotoScan highlights lines, which the marker is expected to lie on, on the rest of the aligned photos.

Note If a marker has been placed on at least two aligned images PhotoScan will find the marker projections on the rest of the photos. The calculated marker positions will be indicated with icon on the corresponding aligned photos in Photo View mode.

Automatically defined marker locations can be later refined manually by dragging their projections on the corresponding photos. To refine marker location 1.

Open the photo where the marker is visible by double clicking on the photo’s name. Automatically placed marker will be indicated with icon. Move the marker projection to the desired location by dragging it using left mouse button. Once the marker location is refined by user, the marker icon will change to Note To list photos where the marker locations are defined, select the corresponding marker on the Workspace pane.

The photos where the marker is placed will be marked with a Photos pane. To filter photos by marker use context menu. To open two photos in PhotoScan window simultaneously Move to Other Tab Group command is available from photo tab header context menu. To open two photos simultaneously 1. In the Photos pane double click on one photo to be opened. The photo will be opened in a new tab of the main program window. Right click on the tab header and choose Move to Other Tab Group command from the context menu.

The main program window will be divided into two parts and the photo will be moved to the second part. The next photo you will choose to be opened with a double click will be visualized in the active tab group. PhotoScan automatically assigns default labels for each newly created marker. These labels can be changed using the Rename Assigning reference coordinates To reference the model the real world coordinates of at least 3 points of the scene should be specified. Depending on the requirements, the model can be referenced using marker coordinates, camera Real world coordinates used for referencing the model along with the type of coordinate system used are specified using the Reference pane.

The model can be located in either local Euclidean coordinates or in georeferenced coordinates. For model georeferencing a wide range of various geographic and projected coordinate systems are supported, including widely used WGS84 coordinate system. Besides, almost all coordinate systems from the EPSG registry are supported as well.

Reference coordinates can be specified in one of the following ways: Loaded from a separate text file using character separated values format. Entered manually in the Reference pane. To load reference coordinates from a text file 1. Click Import toolbar button on the Reference pane. To open Reference pane use Reference command from the View menu.

Browse to the file containing recorded reference coordinates and click Open button. In the Import CSV dialog set the coordinate system if the data presents geographical coordinates. Select the delimiter and indicate the number of the data column for each coordinate.

Indicate columns for the orientation data if present. Click OK button. The reference coordinates data will be loaded onto the Reference pane. Note In the data file columns and rows are numbered starting from 0. An example of a coordinates data file in the CSV format is given in the next section.

Information on the accuracy of the source coordinates x, y, z can be loaded with a CSV file as well. Check Load Accuracy option and indicate the number of the column where the accuracy for the data should be read from. The same figure will be tackled as accuracy information for all three coordinates. To assign reference coordinates manually 1. To remove unnecessary reference coordinates select corresponding items from the list and press Del key. Click Update toolbar button to apply changes and set coordinates.

Select Set Accuracy It is possible to select several cameras and apply Set Accuracy Alternatively, you can select Accuracy m or Accuracy deg text box for a certain camera on the Reference pane and press F2 button on the keyboard to type the text data directly onto the Reference pane. The reference coordinates data will be loaded into the Reference pane. After reference coordinates have been assigned PhotoScan automatically estimates coordinates in a local Euclidean system and calculates the referencing errors.

The largest error will be highlighted. To set a georeferenced coordinate system 1. Assign reference coordinates using one of the options described above. Click Settings button on the Reference pane toolbar.

In the Reference Settings dialog box select the Coordinate System used to compile reference coordinates data if it has not been set at the previous step. Specify the assumed measurement accuracy.

Click OK button to initialize the coordinate system and estimate geographic coordinates. Rotation angles in PhotoScan are defined around the following axes: yaw axis runs from top to bottom, pitch axis runs from left to right wing of the drone, roll axis runs from tail to nose of the drone. Zero values of the rotation angle triple define the following camera position aboard: camera looks down to the ground, frames are taken in landscape orientation, and horizontal axis of the frame is perpendicular to the central tail-nose axis of the drone.

If the camera is fixed in a different position, respective yaw, pitch, roll values should be input in the camera correction section of the Settings dialog. The senses of the angles are defined according to the right-hand rule.

Note Step 5 can be safely skipped if you are using standard GPS system not that of superhigh precision. In Select Coordinate System dialog it is possible to ease searching for the required georeferencing system using Filter option.

Enter respective EPSG code e. EPSG to filter the systems. To view the estimated geographic coordinates and reference errors switch between the View Estimated and View Errors modes respectively using View Estimated and View Errors toolbar buttons. The A click on the column name on the Reference pane sorts the markers and photos by the data in the column. At this point you can review the errors and decide whether additional refinement of marker locations is required in case of marker based referencing , or if certain reference points should be excluded.

To reset a chunk georeferencing use Reset Transform command from the chunk context menu on the Workspace pane. Note Unchecked reference points on the Reference pane are not used for georeferencing. After adjusting marker locations on the photos, the coordinate system will not be updated automatically. It should be updated manually using pane. Update toolbar button on the Reference PhotoScan allows to convert the estimated geographic coordinates into a different coordinate system.

Each reference point is specified in this file on a separate line. JPG Individual entries on each line should be separated with a tab space, semicolon, comma, etc character. All lines starting with character are treated as comments. Records from the coordinate file are matched to the corresponding photos or markers basing on the label field. Camera coordinates labels should match the file name of the corresponding photo including extension. Marker coordinates labels should match the labels of the corresponding markers in the project file.

All labels are case insensitive. Note Character separated reference coordinates format does not include specification of the type of coordinate system used. The kind of coordinate system used should be selected separately. PhotoScan requires z value to indicate height above the ellipsoid.

However, PhotoScan allows for the different geoid models utilization as well. PhotoScan installation package includes only EGM96 geoid model, but additional geoid models can be downloaded from Agisoft’s website if they are required by the coordinate system selected in the Reference pane settings dialog; alternatively, a geoid model can be loaded from a custom PRJ file.

Please refer to the following web-page to review the list of supported geoid models: Optimization Optimization of camera alignment PhotoScan estimates internal and external camera orientation parameters during photo alignment. This estimation is performed using image data alone, and there may be some errors in the final estimates.

The accuracy of the final estimates depends on many factors, like overlap between the neighboring photos, as well as on the shape of the object surface. These errors can lead to non-linear deformations of the final model. During georeferencing the model is linearly transformed using 7 parameter similarity transformation 3 parameters for translation, 3 for rotation and 1 for scaling.

Such transformation can compensate only a linear model misalignment. The non-linear component can not be removed with this approach. This is usually the main reason for georeferencing errors.

Possible non-linear deformations of the model can be removed by optimizing the estimated point cloud and camera parameters based on the known reference coordinates. During this optimization PhotoScan adjusts estimated point coordinates and camera parameters minimizing the sum of reprojection error and reference coordinate misalignment error. To achieve greater optimizing results it may be useful to edit sparse point cloud deleting obviously mislocated points beforehand.

Georeferencing accuracy can be improved significantly after optimization. It is recommended to perform optimization if the final model is to be used for any kind of measurements. To optimize camera alignment 1. Click Settings toolbar button on the Reference pane and set the coordinate system if not done yet. In the Reference pane Settings dialog box specify the assumed accuracy of measured values as well as the assumed accuracy of marker projections on the source photos.

Click Optimize toolbar button. In Optimize Camera Alignment dialog box check additional camera parameters to be optimized if needed.

Click OK button to start optimization. After the optimization is complete, the georeferencing errors will be updated. Note Step 5 can be safely skipped if you are using standard GPS not that of extremely high precision. Tangential distortion parameters p3, p4, are available for optimization only if p1, p2 values are not equal to zero after alignment step.

The model data if any is cleared by the optimization procedure. You will have to rebuild the model geometry after optimization. Image coordinates accuracy for markers indicates how precisely the markers were placed by the user or adjusted by the user after being automatically placed by the program. Ground altitude parameter is used to make reference preselection mode of alignment procedure work effectively for oblique imagery.

See Aligning photos for details. Camera, marker and scale bar accuracy can be set per item i. Accuracy values can be typed in on the pane per item or for a group of selected items. Generally it is reasonable to run optimization procedure based on markers data only. It is due to the fact that GCPs coordinates are measured with significantly higher accuracy compared to GPS data that indicates camera positions. Thus, markers data are sure to give more precise optimization results.

Moreover, quite often GCP and camera coordinates are measured in different coordinate systems, that also prevents from using both cameras and markers data in optimization simultaneously.

The results of the optimization procedure can be evaluated with the help of error information on the Reference pane. In addition, distortion plot can be inspected along with mean residuals visualised per calibration group.

This data is available from Camera Calibration dialog Tools menu , from context menu of a camera group – Distortion Plot In case optimization results does not seem to be satisfactory, you can try recalculating with lower values of parameters, i.

Scale bar based optimization Scale bar is program representation of any known distance within the scene. It can be a standard ruler or a specially prepared bar of a known length. Scale bar is a handy tool to add supportive reference data to They can prove to be useful when there is no way to locate ground control points all over the scene.

Scale bars allow to save field work time, since it is significantly easier to place several scale bars with precisely known length, then to measure coordinates of a few markers using special equipment. In addition, PhotoScan allows to place scale bar instances between cameras, thus making it possible to avoid not only marker but ruler placement within the scene as well. Surely, scale bar based information will not be enough to set a coordinate system, however, the information can be successfully used while optimizing the results of photo alignment.

It will also be enough to perform measurements in PhotoScan software. See Performing measurements on mesh. To add a scale bar 1. Place markers at the start and end points of the bar.

For information on marker placement please refer to the Setting coordinate system section of the manual. Select both markers on the Reference pane using Ctrl button. Select Create Scale Bar command form the Model view context menu. The scale bar will be created and an instant added to the Scale Bar list on the Reference pane. Switch to the View Source mode using the Reference pane toolbar button. Double click on the Distance m box next to the newly created scale bar name and enter the known length of the bar in meters.

To add a scale bar between cameras 1. Select the two cameras on the Workspace or Reference pane using Ctrl button. Alternatively, the cameras can be selected in the Model view window using selecting tools from the Toolbar.

Select Create Scale Bar command form the context menu. To run scale bar based optimization 1. On the Reference pane check all scale bars to be used in optimization procedure. Click Settings toolbar button on the Reference pane. In the Reference pane Settings dialog box specify the assumed accuracy of scale bars measurements. After the optimization is complete, cameras and markers estimated coordinates will be updated as well as all the georeferencing errors.

To analyze optimization results switch to the View Estimated mode using the Reference pane toolbar button. In scale bar section of the Reference pane estimated scale bar distance will be displayed. Select the scale bar to be deleted on the Reference pane. Right-click on it and chose Remove Scale Bars command from the context menu. Click OK for the selected scale bar to be deleted. What do the errors in the Reference pane mean?

Cameras section 1. Error m – distance between the input source and estimated positions of the camera. Error deg – root mean square error calculated over all three orientation angles. Error pix – root mean square reprojection error calculated over all feature points detected on the photo. Markers section 1. Error m – distance between the input source and estimated positions of the marker. Error pix – root mean square reprojection error for the marker calculated over all photos where marker is visible.

Scale Bars section Error m – difference between the input source scale bar length and the measured distance between two cameras or markers representing start and end points of the scale bar.

If the total reprojection error for some marker seems to be too large, it is recommended to inspect reprojection errors for the marker on individual photos. The information is available with Show Info command from the marker context menu on the Reference pane. Working with coded and non-coded targets Overview Coded and non-coded targets are specially prepared, yet quite simple, real world markers that can add up to successful 3D model reconstruction of a scene.

Coded targets advantages and limitations Coded targets CTs can be used as markers to define local coordinate system and scale of the model or as true matches to improve photo alignment procedure. PhotoScan functionality includes automatic detection and matching of CTs on source photos, which allows to benefit from marker implementation in the project Moreover, automatic CTs detection and marker placement is more precise then manual marker placement. PhotoScan supports three types of circle CTs: 12 bit, 16 bit and 20 bit.

While 12 bit pattern is considered to be decoded more precisely, 16 bit and 20 bit patterns allow for a greater number of CTs to be used within the same project. To be detected successfully CTs must take up a significant number of pixels on the original photos. This leads to a natural limitation of CTs implementation: while they generally prove to be useful in close-range imagery projects, aerial photography projects will demand too huge CTs to be placed on the ground, for the CTs to be detected correctly.

Coded targets in workflow Sets of all patterns of CTs supported by PhotoScan can be generated by the program itself. To create a printable PDF with coded targets 1. Select Print Markers Specify the CTs type and desired print parameters in Print Markers dialog. Click OK. Once generated, the pattern set can be printed and the CTs can be placed over the scene to be shot and reconstructed.

When the images with CTs seen on them are uploaded to the program, PhotoScan can detect and match the CTs automatically. To detect coded targets on source images 1. Select Detect Markers Specify parameters of detector in Detect Markers dialog according to the CTs type.

PhotoScan will detect and match CTs and add corresponding markers to the Reference pane. CTs generated with PhotoScan software contain even number of sectors. However, previous versions of PhotoScan software had no restriction of the kind.

Thus, if the project to be processed contains CTs from previous versions of PhotoScan software, it is required to disable parity check in order to make the detector work.

Non-coded targets implementation Non-coded targets can also be automatically detected by PhotoScan see Detect Markers dialog. However, for non-coded targets to be matched automatically, it is necessary to run align photos procedure first. Non-coded targets are more appropriate for aerial surveying projects due to the simplicity of the pattern to be printed on a large scale. But, looking alike, they does not allow for automatic identification, so manual assignment of an identifier is required if some referencing coordinates are to be imported from a file correctly.

Measurements Performing measurements on mesh PhotoScan supports measuring of distances between control points, as well as of surface area and volume of the reconstructed 3D model.

Distance measurement PhotoScan enables measurements of direct distances between the points of the reconstructed 3D scene. The points used for distance measurement must be defined by placing markers in the corresponding locations. Model coordinate system must be also initialized before the distance measurements can be performed. Alternatively, the model can be scaled based on known distance scale bar information to become suitable for measurements.

For instructions on placing markers, refining their positions and setting coordinate system please refer to the Setting coordinate system section of the manual. Scale bar concept is described in the Optimization section. To measure distance 1. Place the markers in the scene at the locations to be used for distance measurement. Select both markers to be used for distance measurements on the Reference pane using Ctrl button. Select Create Scale Bar command form the 3D view context menu.

Switch to the estimated values mode using toolbar. View Estimated button from the Reference pane 5. The estimated distance for the newly created scale bar equals to the distance that should have been measured.

To measure distance between cameras 1. View Estimated button from the Reference pane 4. Note Please note that the scale bar used for distance measurements must be unchecked on the Reference pane.

Surface area and volume measurement Surface area or volume measurements of the reconstructed 3D model can be performed only after the scale or coordinate system of the scene is defined. For instructions on setting coordinate system please refer to the Setting coordinate system section of the manual. To measure surface area and volume 1. Select Measure Area and Volume The whole model surface area and volume will be displayed in the Measure Area and Volume dialog box.

Surface area is measured in square meters, while mesh volume is measured in cubic meters. Volume measurement can be performed only for the models with closed geometry. If there are any holes in the model surface PhotoScan will report zero volume. Existing holes in the mesh surface can be filled in before performing volume measurements using Close Holes Performing measurements on DEM Shapes PhotoScan is capable of DEM-based point, distance, area, and volume measurements as well as of generating cross-sections for a part of the scene selected by the user.

Measurements on the DEM are controlled with shapes: points, polylines and polygons. Alternatively, shapes can be loaded from a. Shapes created in PhotoScan can be exported using Export Shapes Double click on the last point to indicate the end of a polyline.

To complete a polygon, place the end point over the starting one. Once the shape is drawn, a shape label will be added to the chunk data structure on the Workspace pane. All shapes drawn on the same DEM and on the corresponding orthomosaic will be shown under the same label on the Workspace pane.

The program will switch to a navigation mode once a shape is completed. Delete Vertex command is active only for a vertex context menu. To get access to the vertex context menu, select the shape with a double click first, and then select the vertex with a double click on it. To change position of a vertex, drag and drop it to a selected position with the cursor.

Point measurement Ortho view allows to measure coordinates of any point on the reconstructed model. X and Y coordinates of the point indicated with the cursor as well as height of the point above the vertical datum selected by the user are shown in the bottom right corner of the Ortho view. Distance measurement To measure distance 1.

Connect the points of interest with a polyline using toolbar. Draw Polyline tool from the Ortho view 2. Right button click on the polyline and select Measure In the Measure Shape dialog inspect the results.

Perimeter value equals to the distance that should have been measured. In addition to polyline length value see perimeter value in the Measure Shape , coordinates of the vertices of the polyline are shown on the Planar tab of the Measure Shape dialog. Note Measure option is available from the context menu of a selected polyline. To select a polyline, double-click on it.

A selected polyline is coloured in red. Surface area and volume measurement To measure area and volume 1. Right button click on the polygon and select Measure In the Measure Shape dialog inspect the results: see area value on the Planar tab and volume values on the Volume tab. Best fit and mean level planes are calculated based on the drawn polygon vertices.

Volume measured against custom level plane allows to trace volume changes for the same area in the course of time. Note Measure option is available from the context menu of a selected polygon. To select a polygon, double-click on it. A selected polygon is coloured in red. To calculate cross section 1. In the Measure Shape dialog inspect the results on the Profile tab of the dialog. Generate Contours To generate contours 1. Select Generate Contours Set values for Minimal altitude, Maximal altitude parameters as well as the Interval for the contours.

All the values shoudl be indicated in meters. Click OK button once done. When the procedure is finished, a contour lines label will be added to the project file structure shown on the Workspace pane. Contour lines can be shown over the DEM or orthomosaic on the Ortho tab of the program window. Use Show contour lines tool from the Ortho tab toolbal to switch the function on and off.

Contour lines can be deleted using Remove Contours command from the contour lines label context menu on the Workspace pane. Contour lines can be exported using Export Contours command from the contour lines label context menu on the Workspace pane.

Alternatively the command is available from the Tools menu. In the Export Contour Lines dialog it is necessary to select the type of the contour lines to be exported. SHP file can store the lines of the same type only: either polygons or polylines. Vegetation indices calculation PhotoScan enables to calculate NDVI and other vegetation indices based on the multispectral imagery input.

A vegetation index formula can be set by the user, thus allowing for great flexibility in data analysis. Calculated data can be exported as a grid of floating point index values calculated per pixel of orthomosaic or as an orthomosaic in pseudocolors according to a pallet set by the user. Open orthomosaic in the Ortho tab doubleclicking on the orthomosaic label on the Workspace pane. Input an index expression using keyboard input and operators buttons of the raster calculator if necessary.

Check Enable transform box and press OK button to calculate index values. Once the operation is completed, the result will be shown in the Ortho view, index values being visualised with colours according to the palette set in the Raster Calculator dialog.

Palette defines the colour for each index value to be shown with. PhotoScan offers several standard palette presets on the Palette tab of the Raster Calculator dialog. For each new line added to the palette a certain index value should be typed in.

Double click on the newly added line to type the value in. A customised palette can be saved for future projects using Export Palette button on the Palette tab of the Raster Calculator dialog. PhotoScan enables to calculate contour lines based on the calculated index values. To calculate contour lines based on vegetation index data 1. Select Orthomosaic as the source for the contours calculation.

Press OK button to calculate index values. The contour lines will be shown over the index data on the Ortho tab. Note PhotoScan keeps only the latest contour lines data calculated.

After vegetation index results having been inspected, the original orthomosaic can be opened with unchecking Enable transform box in the Raster Calculator and pressing OK button. Index data can be saved with Export orthomosaic command from the File menu.

For guidance on the export procedure, please refer to NDVI data export section of the manual. Editing Using masks Overview Masks are used in PhotoScan to specify the areas on the photos which can otherwise be confusing to the program or lead to incorrect reconstruction results. Masks can be applied at the following stages of processing: Alignment of the photos Building dense point cloud Building 3D model texture Exporting Orthomosaic Alignment of the photos Masked areas can be excluded during feature point detection.

Thus, the objects on the masked parts of the photos are not taken into account while estimating camera positions. This is important in the setups, where the object of interest is not static with respect to the scene, like when using a turn table to capture the photos. Masking may be also useful when the object of interest occupies only a small part of the photo.

In this case a small number of useful matches can be filtered out mistakenly as a noise among a much greater number of matches between background objects. Building dense point cloud While building dense point cloud, masked areas are not used in the depth maps computation process. Masking can be used to reduce the resulting dense cloud complexity, by eliminating the areas on the photos that are not of interest. Masked areas are always excluded from processing during dense point cloud and texture generation stages.

Let’s take for instance a set of photos of some object. Along with an object itself on each photo some background areas are present. These areas may be useful for more precise camera positioning, so it is better to use them while aligning the photos. However, impact of these areas at the building dense point cloud is exactly opposite: the resulting model will contain object of interest and its background.

Background geometry will “consume” some part of mesh polygons that could be otherwise used for modeling the main object. Building texture atlas During texture atlas generation, masked areas on the photos are not used for texturing. Masking areas on the photos that are occluded by outliers or obstacles helps to prevent the “ghosting” effect on the resulting texture atlas.

Loading masks Masks can be loaded from external sources, as well as generated automatically from background images if such data is available.

PhotoScan supports loading masks from the following sources: From alpha channel of the source photos. From separate images. Generated from background photos based on background differencing technique.

Based on reconstructed 3D model. To import masks 1. Select Import Masks In the Import Mask dialog select suitable parameters. When generating masks from separate or background images, the folder selection dialog will appear. Browse to the folder containing corresponding images and select it. The following parameters can be specified during mask import: Import masks for Specifies whether masks should be imported for the currently opened photo, active chunk or entire Workspace.

Current photo – load mask for the currently opened photo if any. Active chunk – load masks for active chunk. Entire workspace – load masks for all chunks in the project. Method Specifies the source of the mask data. From Alpha – load masks from alpha channel of the source photos.

From File – load masks from separate images. From Background – generate masks from background photos. From Model – generate masks based on reconstructed model. This template can contain special tokens, that will be substituted by corresponding data for each photo being processed. Select the format of the file to be imported. Browse to the file and click Open button. The data will be loaded into the software. Camera calibration data can be inspected in the Camera Calibration dialog, Adjusted tab, available from Tools menu.

If the input file contains some reference data camera position data in some coordinate system , the data will be shown on the Reference pane, View Estimated tab. Once the data is loaded, PhotoScan will offer to build point cloud. This step involves feature points detection and matching procedures. As a result, a sparse point cloud – 3D representation of the tie-points data – will be generated.

Parameters controlling Build Point Cloud procedure are the same as the ones used at Align Photos step see above. Building dense point cloud PhotoScan allows to generate and visualize a dense point cloud model. Based on the estimated camera positions the program calculates depth information for each camera to be combined into a single dense point cloud.

PhotoScan tends to produce extra dense point clouds, which are of almost the same density, if not denser, as LIDAR point clouds. A dense point cloud can be edited and classified within PhotoScan environment or exported to an external tool for further analysis.

To build a dense point cloud 1. Check the reconstruction volume bounding box. To adjust the bounding box use the Resize Region and Rotate Region toolbar buttons. Rotate the bounding box and then drag corners of the box to the desired positions. Select the Build Dense Cloud In the Build Dense Cloud dialog box select the desired reconstruction parameters. Reconstruction parameters Quality Specifies the desired reconstruction quality. Higher quality settings can be used to obtain more detailed and accurate geometry, but require longer time for processing.

The only difference is that in this case Ultra High quality setting means processing of original photos, while each following step implies preprocessing image size downscaling by factor of 4 2 times by each side. Depth Filtering modes At the stage of dense point cloud generation reconstruction PhotoScan calculates depth maps for every image.

Due to some factors, like poor texture of some elements of the scene, noisy or badly focused images, there can be some outliers among the points. To sort out the outliers PhotoScan has several built-in filtering algorithms that answer the challenges of different projects.

If the area to be reconstructed does not contain meaningful small details, then it is reasonable to chose Aggressive depth filtering mode to sort out most of the outliers. Moderate depth filtering mode brings results that are in between the Mild and Aggressive approaches. You can experiment with the setting in case you have doubts which mode to choose.

Additionally depth filtering can be Disabled. But this option is not recommended as the resulting dense cloud could be extremely noisy. Building mesh To build a mesh 1. If the Height field reconstruction method is to be applied, it is important to control the position of the red side of the bounding box: it defines reconstruction plane. In this case make sure that the bounding box is correctly oriented. Select the Build Mesh In the Build Mesh dialog box select the desired reconstruction parameters.

Reconstruction parameters PhotoScan supports several reconstruction methods and settings, which help to produce optimal reconstructions for a given data set. Surface type Arbitrary surface type can be used for modeling of any kind of object. It should be selected for closed objects, such as statues, buildings, etc. It doesn’t make any assumptions on the type of the object modeled, which comes at a cost of higher memory consumption. Height field surface type is optimized for modeling of planar surfaces, such as terrains or bas-reliefs.

It should be selected for aerial photography processing as it requires lower amount of memory and allows for larger data sets processing. Source data Specifies the source for the mesh generation procedure.

Sparse cloud can be used for fast 3D model generation based solely on the sparse point cloud. Dense cloud setting will result in longer processing time but will generate high quality output based on the previously reconstructed dense point cloud.

Polygon count Specifies the maximum number of polygons in the final mesh. Suggested values High, Medium, Low are calculated based on the number of points in the previously generated dense point cloud: the They present optimal number of polygons for a mesh of a corresponding level of detail. It is still possible for a user to indicate the target number of polygons in the final mesh according to his choice. It could be done through the Custom value of the Polygon count parameter.

Please note that while too small number of polygons is likely to result in too rough mesh, too huge custom number over 10 million polygons is likely to cause model visualization problems in external software. Interpolation If interpolation mode is Disabled it leads to accurate reconstruction results since only areas corresponding to dense point cloud points are reconstructed.

Manual hole filling is usually required at the post processing step. With Enabled default interpolation mode PhotoScan will interpolate some surface areas within a circle of a certain radius around every dense cloud point.

As a result some holes can be automatically covered. Yet some holes can still be present on the model and are to be filled at the post processing step.

Enabled default setting is recommended for orthophoto generation. In Extrapolated mode the program generates holeless model with extrapolated geometry. Large areas of extra geometry might be generated with this method, but they could be easily removed later using selection and cropping tools.

Point classes Specifies the classes of the dense point cloud to be used for mesh generation. Preliminary dense cloud classification should be performed for this option of mesh generation to be active. Note PhotoScan tends to produce 3D models with excessive geometry resolution, so it is recommended to perform mesh decimation after geometry computation.

More information on mesh decimation and other 3D model geometry editing tools is given in the Editing model geometry section. Building model texture To generate 3D model texture 1. Select Build Texture Select the desired texture generation parameters in the Build Texture dialog box. Texture mapping modes The texture mapping mode determines how the object texture will be packed in the texture atlas. Proper texture mapping mode selection helps to obtain optimal texture packing and, consequently, better visual quality of the final model.

No assumptions regarding the type of the scene to be processed are made; program tries to create as uniform texture as possible. Adaptive orthophoto In the Adaptive orthophoto mapping mode the object surface is split into the flat part and vertical regions. The flat part of the surface is textured using the orthographic projection, while vertical regions are textured separately to maintain accurate texture representation in such regions.

When in the Adaptive orthophoto mapping mode, program tends to produce more compact texture representation for nearly planar scenes, while maintaining good texture quality for vertical surfaces, such as walls of the buildings. Orthophoto In the Orthophoto mapping mode the whole object surface is textured in the orthographic projection. The Orthophoto mapping mode produces even more compact texture representation than the Adaptive orthophoto mode at the expense of texture quality in vertical regions.

Spherical Spherical mapping mode is appropriate only to a certain class of objects that have a ball-like form. It allows for continuous texture atlas being exported for this type of objects, so that it is much easier to edit it later. When generating texture in Spherical mapping mode it is crucial to set the Bounding box properly. The whole model should be within the Bounding box.

The red side of the Bounding box should be under the model; it defines the axis of the spherical projection. The marks on the front side determine the 0 meridian. Single photo The Single photo mapping mode allows to generate texture from a single photo. The photo to be used for texturing can be selected from ‘Texture from’ list.

Keep uv The Keep uv mapping mode generates texture atlas using current texture parametrization. It can be used to rebuild texture atlas using different resolution or to generate the atlas for the model parametrized in the external software. Texture generation parameters The following parameters control various aspects of texture atlas generation: Texture from Single photo mapping mode only Specifies the photo to be used for texturing.

Available only in the Single photo mapping mode. Blending mode not used in Single photo mode Selects the way how pixel values from different photos will be combined in the final texture. Mosaic – gives more quality for orthophoto and texture atlas than Average mode, since it does not mix image details of overlapping photos but uses most appropriate photo i. Mosaic texture blending mode is especially useful for orthophoto generation based on approximate geometric model.

Average – uses the average value of all pixels from individual photos. Max Intensity – the photo which has maximum intensity of the corresponding pixel is selected. Min Intensity – the photo which has minimum intensity of the corresponding pixel is selected. Exporting texture to several files allows to archive greater resolution of the final model texture, while export of high resolution texture to a single file can fail due to RAM limitations.

Enable color correction The feature is useful for processing of data sets with extreme brightness variation. However, please note that color correction process takes up quite a long time, so it is recommended to enable the setting only for the data sets that proved to present results of poor quality. To improve result texture quality it may be reasonable to exclude poorly focused images from processing at this step.

PhotoScan suggests automatic image quality estimation feature. PhotoScan estimates image quality as a relative sharpness of the photo with respect to other images in the data set. Saving intermediate results Certain stages of 3D model reconstruction can take a long time. The full chain of operations could easily last for hours when building a model from hundreds of photos. It is not always possible to finish all the operations in one run. PhotoScan allows to save intermediate results in a project file.

PhotoScan project files may contain the following information: List of loaded photographs with reference paths to the image files. Photo alignment data such as information on camera positions, sparse point cloud model and set of refined camera calibration parameters for each calibration group. Masks applied to the photos in project. Dense point cloud model with information on points classification. Reconstructed 3D polygonal model with any changes made by user. This includes mesh and texture if it was built.

List of added markers as well as of scale-bars and information on their positions. Structure of the project, i. You can save the project at the end of any processing stage and return to it later. To restart work simply load the corresponding file into PhotoScan. Project files can also serve as backup files or be used to save different versions of the same model.

Note that since PhotoScan tends to generate extra dense point clouds and highly detailed polygonal models, project saving procedure can take up quite a long time. You can decrease compression level to speed up the saving process.

However, please note that it will result in a larger project file. Compression level setting can be found on the Advanced tab of the Preferences dialog available from Tools menu. Project files use relative paths to reference original photos.

Thus, when moving or copying the project file to another location do not forget to move or copy photographs with all the folder structure involved as well. Otherwise, PhotoScan will fail to run any operation requiring source images, although the project file including the reconstructed model will be loaded up correctly. Alternatively, you can enable Store absolute image paths option on the Advanced tab of the Preferences dialog available from Tools menu.

Exporting results PhotoScan supports export of processing results in various representations: sparse and dense point clouds, camera calibration and camera orientation data, mesh, etc. Point clouds and camera calibration data can be exported right after photo alignment is completed. All other export options are available after the 3D model is built.

To align the model orientation with the default coordinate system use object button from the Toolbar. Rotate In some cases editing model geometry in the external software may be required. PhotoScan supports model export for editing in external software and then allows to import it back, as it is described in the Editing model geometry section of the manual. Main export commands are available from the File menu and the rest from the Export submenu of the Tools menu.

Point cloud export To export sparse or dense point cloud 1. Select Export Points Browse the destination folder, choose the file type, and print in the file name.

Click Save button. Specify the coordinate system and indicate export parameters applicable to the selected file type, including the dense cloud classes to be saved. Click OK button to start export. Split in blocks option in the Export Points dialog can be useful for exporting large projects. It is available for referenced models only.

You can indicate the size of the section in xy plane in meters for the point cloud to be divided into respective rectangular blocks. The total volume of the 3D scene is limited with the Bounding Box.

The whole volume will be split in equal blocks starting from the point with minimum x and y values. Note that empty blocks will not be saved. In some cases it may be reasonable to edit point cloud before exporting it.

To read about point cloud editing refer to the Editing point cloud section of the manual. Tie points data export To export matching points 1. Select Export Matches In the Export Matches dialog box set export parameters.

Precision value sets the limit to the number of decimal digits in the tie points coordinates to be saved. Later on estimated camera data can be imported back to PhotoScan using Import Cameras command from the Tools menu to proceed with 3D model reconstruction procedure. Camera calibration and orientation data export To export camera calibration and camera orientation data select Export Cameras Camera data export in Bundler file format would not save distortion coefficients k3, k4.

PhotoScan is capable of panorama stitching for images taken from the same camera position – camera station. To indicate for the software that loaded images have been taken from one camera station one For information on camera group refer to Loading photos section. To export panorama 1. Select Export – Export Panorama Select camera group which panorama should be previewed for.

Choose panorama orientation in the file with the help of navigation buttons to the right of the preview window in the Export Panorama dialog. Set exporting parameters: select camera groups which panorama should be exported for and indicate export file name mask. Click OK button 6. Browse the destination folder and click Save button.

Select Export Model In the Export Model dialog specify the coordinate system and indicate export parameters applicable to the selected file type. If a model generated with PhotoScan is to be imported in a 3D editor program for inspection or further editing, it might be helpful to use Shift function while exporting the model. It allows to set the value to be subtracted from the respective coordinate value for every vertex in the mesh.

Essentially, this means translation of the model coordinate system origin, which may be useful since some 3D editors, for example, truncate the coordinates values up to 8 or so digits, while in some projects they are decimals that make sense with respect to model positioning task. So it can be recommended to subtract a value equal to the whole part of a certain coordinate value see Reference pane, Camera coordinates values before exporting the model, thus providing for a reasonable scale for the model to be processed in a 3D editor program.

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Visilter, S. Chapter 3 Starting ImageBrowser ImageBrowser Starting ImageBrowser 4 Importing Images to Your Computer FlexColor 3. About the Render Gallery All of your completed rendered images are available online from the Render Gallery page. Images in the gallery are grouped in collections according to the source document RVT. Picture Manager Picture Manager allows you to easily edit and organize the pictures on your computer.

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